Scholar Repository
Home>Manual>DTD Elements

DTD Elements

From http://www.w3schools.com (Copyright Refsnes Data)

DTD - Elements

back next


In a DTD, elements are declared with an ELEMENT declaration.


Declaring Elements

In a DTD, XML elements are declared with an element declaration with the following syntax:

<!ELEMENT element-name category>
or
<!ELEMENT element-name (element-content)>



Empty Elements

Empty elements are declared with the category keyword EMPTY:

<!ELEMENT element-name EMPTY>
Example:
<!ELEMENT br EMPTY>
XML example:
<br />



Elements with Parsed Character Data

Elements with only parsed character data are declared with #PCDATA inside parentheses:

<!ELEMENT element-name (#PCDATA)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT from (#PCDATA)>



Elements with any Contents

Elements declared with the category keyword ANY, can contain any combination of parsable data:

<!ELEMENT element-name ANY>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note ANY>



Elements with Children (sequences)

Elements with one or more children are declared with the name of the children elements inside parentheses:

<!ELEMENT element-name (child1)>
or
<!ELEMENT element-name (child1,child2,...)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note (to,from,heading,body)>

When children are declared in a sequence separated by commas, the children must appear in the same sequence in the document. In a full declaration, the children must also be declared, and the children can also have children. The full declaration of the "note" element is:

<!ELEMENT note (to,from,heading,body)>
<!ELEMENT to      (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT from    (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT heading (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT body    (#PCDATA)>



Declaring Only One Occurrence of an Element 

<!ELEMENT element-name (child-name)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note (message)>

The example above declares that the child element "message" must occur once, and only once inside the "note" element.


Declaring Minimum One Occurrence of an Element

<!ELEMENT element-name (child-name+)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note (message+)>

The + sign in the example above declares that the child element "message" must occur one or more times inside the "note" element.


Declaring Zero or More Occurrences of an Element 

<!ELEMENT element-name (child-name*)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note (message*)>

The * sign in the example above declares that the child element "message" can occur zero or more times inside the "note" element.


Declaring Zero or One Occurrences of an Element 

<!ELEMENT element-name (child-name?)>
Example:
<!ELEMENT note (message?)>

The ? sign in the example above declares that the child element "message" can occur zero or one time inside the "note" element.


Declaring either/or Content

Example:
<!ELEMENT note (to,from,header,(message|body))>

The example above declares that the "note" element must contain a "to" element, a "from" element, a "header" element, and either a "message" or a "body" element.


Declaring Mixed Content

Example:
<!ELEMENT note (#PCDATA|to|from|header|message)*>

The example above declares that the "note" element can contain zero or more occurrences of parsed character data, "to", "from", "header", or "message" elements.


back next

From http://www.w3schools.com (Copyright Refsnes Data)

Home>Manual>DTD Elements